|MD 1965, PhD 1965-67 Experimental fluorescein angiography; 1967-69, Research Fellow at Wilmer Institute to start and run the first clinical fluorescein angiography service.
Residency at Helsinki University Eye Hospital,1.6.1970-30.6.1972; 1970-1983 researcher at Dept. Physiology with Juhani Hyvärinen on binocular deprivation.
Ophthalmologist and Chief of Low Vision Clinic, Central Association for the Blind 1976 1977; 1.6.1977-31.3. -1979 Consultant of the Low vision Clinic.
Lecturer, in starting Nordic Staff Training for Deaf -Blind Services1981-1987. Private practice 1983-2010.
Consultant and member of 2 groups in development of health services and special education in Finland 1992-2010; in Europe1998-2004.
Lecturing in 70 countries and helping to create low vision services 1984 – 2019. Temp.Adviser of WHO 1992 Bangkok, 2003 Geneva
Advisor to WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region to develop Vision Rehabilitation 2003-2006.